Civil Construction is a part of civil engineering that deals with planning, designing, constructing and maintaining physical structures as well as natural components. More precisely it can be described as the creation of infrastructure that involved anything to do with water, earth transport. It is the process of constructing buildings, roads, airports, bridges, dams, etc. Civil construction work is not complete without the application of civil engineering, that aids civil construction with efficient management plans, building techniques, safety practices, etc. Construction engineering has been one of the most important aspects of life and also one of the oldest engineering disciplines. In present times umpteen numbers of civil engineering construction are being carried out all over the world. The infrastructural importance of civil construction can be explained by the fact that it is considered to be an important contributing pillar of a country's GDP. Civil engineering construction reflects a country's growth in terms of economy and urban development.
The civil construction industry has numerous players such as clients, contractors, managers, engineers and several others related to design, execution, regulators, etc. They perform their respective functions in order to achieve intermediary targets or accomplish entire projects with the help of construction engineering. Civil engineering construction is responsible for the majority of the structures that the population uses and are not privately owned. Construction engineering projects are usually over budget and schedule given its complex nature, factored solutions for safe operations and participation of a large number of contributors interdependent on each other.
Civil Construction Stages
It is common practice in civil construction to segregate entire projects into stages that are planned and scheduled before initiating construction. Every stage can be considered as an individual project that must be completed, as prescribed by the directing authority, contributing to the project's goals as scheduled. Each and every stage is meticulously analyzed and evaluated to ensure the maintenance of the ideal quality of work throughout the entire project process. These stages must be completed within the allotted time and resources and must be inspected using different ways. The various stages involved in civil construction engineering are:
Conception Stage- The conception of a project starts when the client envisions constructing a specific structure according to his choice and requirement. It involves the selection of location for the project and the adoption of various specifications, codes, and standards that will be adhered to during construction.
Designing- This stage involves the planning, designing, and contracting of the entire project. Before this stage, the project is not confirmed. The outline of the entire project is laid down as per the time sequence and guidelines from local and government bodies. The team responsible for designing and planning should stick to the set codes. Bidding against the project is also done during the designing stage. In short, the designing stage can be completed in four main steps that are
Ease and management of outlining goals and objectives
Materials and resource supplies that have to be adopted during the construction phase for systematic design
Structural design developments that will decide the scope, material, and equipment requirement.
After finalizing all aspects of the designing stage, contract documents are prepared that specify all requirements.
Pre-construction- Selection of contractors and deputation of several professionals like engineers, managers, administrators, etc are done at this stage. This stage also includes inspection of the site by contractors and engineers.
Procurement - As per the project requirements, all resources that have been planned and already been ordered are procured during this integral stage. With the increase in the scale of the project the complexity involved in procuring resources such as materials, equipment and workforce also increase.
Construction- Before initiating the construction project, a pre-construction meeting is held to direct every individual and team and ensure that they understand their role and function that will drive the efforts towards achieving a common goal. The construction stage thus involves the proper execution of processes, under standard regulations and with standard practices. The erection of the entire structure from its foundation to its finishes comprises the construction stage.
Post Construction- At this stage, all component structures of the project are inspected to ensure that they are ready for their designed use. All integral tasks have been completed at this stage and the project is heading towards completion. A post-project review is also hosted by the project team to check whether all tasks are completed.
Major Civil Construction Projects
Civil construction engineering can be used to build many different structures both small and large scale. Small scale civil engineering construction includes the building of home repair and renovation, local roads, regular parks, public toilets, etc. Major civil construction engineering projects can be:
Residential Building- Residential building construction works include construction, remodeling, and repair/maintenance of houses, apartments, hostels, townhomes, etc that serve the purpose of housing people, supplies, or equipment. Construction of garages and sheds can also come under this category. Residential building construction also includes electric and water systems in and around the structure. For a single-family residence, the builder himself can do both design and construction of the house with requisite amenities but for residential projects engineers and architects plan out the structures, and contractors and sub-contractors complete the execution aspect of the project.
Commercial Building- As the name suggests these buildings include schools, hospitals, shopping centers, malls, stores, stadiums & sports arenas, skyscrapers, etc. These buildings are built as spaces to be used by certain sections of the population simultaneously and for generating revenue for a private or government client.
Industrial Construction- These building construction work require specialized civil construction engineering as well as advanced technical skills in planning, design, and construction. The extra demand for skills and specialized methods along with high-qualitythe work and supplies is because of the high structural load and high durability requirement of the structures.
Heavy Construction- This type of civil construction is usually undertaken for government firms and subsidiaries. Most of the heavy civil engineering construction projects are solely constructed for public safety and assistance. These include heavy structures that resist tremendous load and withstand adverse conditions for several years. Heavy construction engineering is adopted for construction of bridges, railroads, highways, river and canal stabilizing structures, wastewater treatment plants, ports, airports, etc.
Civil Construction in India is an essential indicator of the development status of a country as it creates investment and employment opportunities across various interlinked sectors. It has contributed to the country's GDP with an approximate share of about 10%. The civil construction sector is considered to play a vital role in economic growth along with structures that enhance productivity and add quality to life.